- •The brain microenvironment, including brain metastases (BM), is “immunologically cold”.
- •The mechanism of action of immunotherapy in the brain or BMs is not well understood.
- •Intracranial responses can occur in patients with NSCLC receiving immunotherapy.
- •Understanding the interplay of microenvironment and BMs may improve immunotherapy outcomes.
Abbreviations:NSCLC (non-small-cell lung cancer), TILs (tumor infiltrating lymphocytes), PD-L1 (programmed death ligand-1), TMB (tumor mutational burden), WBRT (whole brain radiotherapy), BSC (best supportive care), OS (overall survival), iCRR (intracranial response rate), ORR (overall response rate), EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor), ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), TKIs (tyrosine kinase inhibitors), CNS (central nervous system), PD-1 (programmed death protein-1), PFS (progression free survival), EAP (expanded access programs), DCR (disease control rate), iDCR (intracranial disease control rate), IHC (immunohistochemistry), RA (reactive astrocytes), cGAMP (cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate), ncRNAs (non-coding RNAs), ET-1 (endothelin-1), VEGF-A (vascular endothelial growth factor-A), TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1), ECM (extracellular matrix), MIF (migration inhibitory factor), NO (nitric oxide), TGF-β (transforming growth factor-β), MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein), PGE-2 (prostaglandin E2), TAM (tumor associated macrophages), BMDM (bone marrow-derived macrophages)
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