- •Drug development for the treatment of patients with kidney cancer (RCC) is mainly concentrated in high- income countries.
- •The Regional distribution of clinical trials for RCC is not aligned with the burden of RCC.
- •The polarization of drug development in few countries can widen the ample gaps in the knowledge of benefit of pharmacological agents in different populations.
- •Generalizability of clinical findings from trials may not be generalizable to non-Caucasian populations, when inclusiveness of diverse ethnic groups is poor.
- •The implementation of clinical trials can be instrumental to improve the knowledge in poorly- included populations, thus being strategic to benefit patients broadly.
Abbreviations:HIC (high- income countries), IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), IO (immunoncology agent), LM (low- middle income countries), LMIC/ LIC (lower- middle and low- middle income countries), NGIM (next generation immune-checkpoint inhibitors), OS (overall survival), RCC (renal cell carcinoma), SEER (US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results), TKI (tyrosine- kinase inhibitor), UMIC (upper- middle income countries)
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