MassARRAY determination of somatic oncogenic mutations in solid tumors: Moving forward to personalized medicine

  • Author Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally.
    Tania Fleitas
    Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally.
    Affiliations
    Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Biomedical Research Institute-INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibañez 17, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally.
    Maider Ibarrola-Villava
    Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally.
    Affiliations
    Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Biomedical Research Institute-INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibañez 17, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Gloria Ribas
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors. Fax: +34 963 987860.
    Affiliations
    Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Biomedical Research Institute-INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibañez 17, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Andrés Cervantes
    Correspondence
    Corresponding authors. Fax: +34 963 987860.
    Affiliations
    Department of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Biomedical Research Institute-INCLIVA, University of Valencia, Av. Blasco Ibañez 17, 46010 Valencia, Spain
    Search for articles by this author
  • Author Footnotes
    1 Both authors contributed equally.

      Highlights

      • We review those articles using MassARRAY technology for somatic mutation analysis.
      • We describe commercial available panels and their applicability.
      • We highlight the importance of designing customized panels for each tumor type.
      • We reinforce the role of this technique in selecting target-drug therapies.
      • Validation and concordance rates among different technologies are described.

      Abstract

      This article will review the impact of the recently developed MassARRAY technology on our understanding of cancer biology and treatment. Analysis of somatic mutations is a useful tool in selecting personalized therapy, and for predicting the outcome of many solid tumors. Here, we review the literature on the application of MassARRAY technology (Sequenom Hamburg, Germany) to determine the mutation profile of solid tumors from patients. We summarize the use of commercially available panels of mutations – such as OncoCarta™ or other combinations – and their concordance with results obtained by using other technologies, such as next generation sequencing.

      Keywords

      To read this article in full you will need to make a payment

      References

        • Mates M.
        • Fletcher G.G.
        • Freedman O.C.
        • Eisen A.
        • Gandhi S.
        • Trudeau M.E.
        • et al.
        Systemic targeted therapy for her2-positive early female breast cancer: a systematic review of the evidence for the 2014 Cancer Care Ontario systemic therapy guideline.
        Curr Oncol. 2015; 22: S114-S122
        • McArthur G.A.
        • Chapman P.B.
        • Robert C.
        • Larkin J.
        • Haanen J.B.
        • Dummer R.
        • et al.
        Safety and efficacy of vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E) and BRAF(V600K) mutation-positive melanoma (BRIM-3): extended follow-up of a phase 3, randomised, open-label study.
        Lancet Oncol. 2014; 15: 323-332
        • MacConaill L.E.
        • Campbell C.D.
        • Kehoe S.M.
        • Bass A.J.
        • Hatton C.
        • Niu L.
        • et al.
        Profiling critical cancer gene mutations in clinical tumor samples.
        PLoS ONE. 2009; 4: e7887
        • Dienstmann R.
        • Serpico D.
        • Rodon J.
        • Saura C.
        • Macarulla T.
        • Elez E.
        • et al.
        Molecular profiling of patients with colorectal cancer and matched targeted therapy in phase I clinical trials.
        Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11: 2062-2071
        • Ibarrola-Villava M.
        • Fleitas T.
        • Llorca-Cardenosa M.J.
        • Mongort C.
        • Alonso E.
        • Navarro S.
        • et al.
        Determination of somatic oncogenic mutations linked to target-based therapies using MassARRAY technology.
        Oncotarget. 2016;
        • Arcila M.
        • Lau C.
        • Nafa K.
        • Ladanyi M.
        Detection of KRAS and BRAF mutations in colorectal carcinoma roles for high-sensitivity locked nucleic acid-PCR sequencing and broad-spectrum mass spectrometry genotyping.
        J Mol Diagn. 2011; 13: 64-73
        • Beadling C.
        • Heinrich M.C.
        • Warrick A.
        • Forbes E.M.
        • Nelson D.
        • Justusson E.
        • et al.
        Multiplex mutation screening by mass spectrometry evaluation of 820 cases from a personalized cancer medicine registry.
        J Mol Diagn. 2011; 13: 504-513
        • Biscuola M.
        • Van de Vijver K.
        • Castilla M.A.
        • Romero-Perez L.
        • Lopez-Garcia M.A.
        • Diaz-Martin J.
        • et al.
        Oncogene alterations in endometrial carcinosarcomas.
        Hum Pathol. 2013; 44: 852-859
        • Bond C.E.
        • Umapathy A.
        • Ramsnes I.
        • Greco S.A.
        • Zhen Zhao Z.
        • Mallitt K.A.
        • et al.
        P53 mutation is common in microsatellite stable, BRAF mutant colorectal cancers.
        Int J Cancer. 2011; 130: 1567-1576
        • Brevet M.
        • Johnson M.L.
        • Azzoli C.G.
        • Ladanyi M.
        Detection of EGFR mutations in plasma DNA from lung cancer patients by mass spectrometry genotyping is predictive of tumor EGFR status and response to EGFR inhibitors.
        Lung Cancer. 2011; 73: 96-102
        • Carden C.P.
        • Stewart A.
        • Thavasu P.
        • Kipps E.
        • Pope L.
        • Crespo M.
        • et al.
        The association of PI3 kinase signaling and chemoresistance in advanced ovarian cancer.
        Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11: 1609-1617
        • Carlino M.S.
        • Haydu L.E.
        • Kakavand H.
        • Menzies A.M.
        • Hamilton A.L.
        • Yu B.
        • et al.
        Correlation of BRAF and NRAS mutation status with outcome, site of distant metastasis and response to chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma.
        Br J Cancer. 2014; 111: 292-299
        • Chaft J.E.
        • Arcila M.E.
        • Paik P.K.
        • Lau C.
        • Riely G.J.
        • Pietanza M.C.
        • et al.
        Coexistence of PIK3CA and other oncogene mutations in lung adenocarcinoma-rationale for comprehensive mutation profiling.
        Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11: 485-491
        • Chandarlapaty S.
        • Sakr R.A.
        • Giri D.
        • Patil S.
        • Heguy A.
        • Morrow M.
        • et al.
        Frequent mutational activation of the PI3K-AKT pathway in trastuzumab-resistant breast cancer.
        Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18: 6784-6791
        • Choy E.
        • Hornicek F.
        • MacConaill L.
        • Harmon D.
        • Tariq Z.
        • Garraway L.
        • et al.
        High-throughput genotyping in osteosarcoma identifies multiple mutations in phosphoinositide-3-kinase and other oncogenes.
        Cancer. 2011; 118: 2905-2914
        • Cote M.L.
        • Atikukke G.
        • Ruterbusch J.J.
        • Olson S.H.
        • Sealy-Jefferson S.
        • Rybicki B.A.
        • et al.
        Racial differences in oncogene mutations detected in early-stage low-grade endometrial cancers.
        Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2012; 22: 1367-1372
        • Cote M.L.
        • Haddad R.
        • Edwards D.J.
        • Atikukke G.
        • Gadgeel S.
        • Soubani A.O.
        • et al.
        Frequency and type of epidermal growth factor receptor mutations in African Americans with non-small cell lung cancer.
        J Thorac Oncol. 2011; 6: 627-630
        • Da Silva L.
        • Simpson P.T.
        • Smart C.E.
        • Cocciardi S.
        • Waddell N.
        • Lane A.
        • et al.
        HER3 and downstream pathways are involved in colonization of brain metastases from breast cancer.
        Breast Cancer Res. 2010; 12: R46
        • Duprez R.
        • Wilkerson P.M.
        • Lacroix-Triki M.
        • Lambros M.B.
        • Mackay A.
        • Hern R.A.
        • et al.
        Immunophenotypic and genomic characterization of papillary carcinomas of the breast.
        J Pathol. 2012; 226: 427-441
        • Dutton-Regester K.
        • Irwin D.
        • Hunt P.
        • Aoude L.G.
        • Tembe V.
        • Pupo G.M.
        • et al.
        A high-throughput panel for identifying clinically relevant mutation profiles in melanoma.
        Mol Cancer Ther. 2012; 11: 888-897
        • Fallet V.
        • Saffroy R.
        • Girard N.
        • Mazieres J.
        • Lantuejoul S.
        • Vieira T.
        • et al.
        High-throughput somatic mutation profiling in pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinomas using the LungCarta Panel: exploring therapeutic targets.
        Ann Oncol. 2015;
        • Fumagalli D.
        • Gavin P.G.
        • Taniyama Y.
        • Kim S.I.
        • Choi H.J.
        • Paik S.
        • et al.
        A rapid, sensitive, reproducible and cost-effective method for mutation profiling of colon cancer and metastatic lymph nodes.
        BMC Cancer. 2010; 10: 101
        • Gavin P.G.
        • Colangelo L.H.
        • Fumagalli D.
        • Tanaka N.
        • Remillard M.Y.
        • Yothers G.
        • et al.
        Mutation profiling and microsatellite instability in stage II and III colon cancer: an assessment of their prognostic and oxaliplatin predictive value.
        Clin Cancer Res. 2012; 18: 6531-6541
        • Greaves W.O.
        • Verma S.
        • Patel K.P.
        • Davies M.A.
        • Barkoh B.A.
        • Galbincea J.M.
        • et al.
        Frequency and spectrum of BRAF mutations in a retrospective, single-institution study of 1112 cases of melanoma.
        J Mol Diagn. 2013; 15: 220-226
        • Hernandez L.
        • Wilkerson P.M.
        • Lambros M.B.
        • Campion-Flora A.
        • Rodrigues D.N.
        • Gauthier A.
        • et al.
        Genomic and mutational profiling of ductal carcinomas in situ and matched adjacent invasive breast cancers reveals intra-tumour genetic heterogeneity and clonal selection.
        J Pathol. 2012; 227: 42-52
        • John T.
        • Kohler D.
        • Pintilie M.
        • Yanagawa N.
        • Pham N.A.
        • Li M.
        • et al.
        The ability to form primary tumor xenografts is predictive of increased risk of disease recurrence in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer.
        Clin Cancer Res. 2011; 17: 134-141
        • John T.
        • Starmans M.H.
        • Chen Y.T.
        • Russell P.A.
        • Barnett S.A.
        • White S.C.
        • et al.
        The role of Cancer-Testis antigens as predictive and prognostic markers in non-small cell lung cancer.
        PLoS ONE. 2013; 8: e67876
        • Kang H.J.
        • Ryu M.H.
        • Kim K.M.
        • Park Y.S.
        • Choi J.
        • Ryoo B.Y.
        • et al.
        Imatinib efficacy by tumor genotype in Korean patients with advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): the Korean GIST Study Group (KGSG) study.
        Acta Oncol. 2012; 51: 528-536
        • Krakstad C.
        • Birkeland E.
        • Seidel D.
        • Kusonmano K.
        • Petersen K.
        • Mjos S.
        • et al.
        High-throughput mutation profiling of primary and metastatic endometrial cancers identifies KRAS, FGFR2 and PIK3CA to be frequently mutated.
        PLoS ONE. 2012; 7: e52795
        • Lee J.
        • van Hummelen P.
        • Go C.
        • Palescandolo E.
        • Jang J.
        • Park H.Y.
        • et al.
        High-throughput mutation profiling identifies frequent somatic mutations in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.
        PLoS ONE. 2012; 7: e38892
        • Li C.F.
        • Liu C.X.
        • Li B.C.
        • Shen Y.Y.
        • Cui X.B.
        • Liu W.
        • et al.
        Recurrent inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors harboring PIK3CA and KIT mutations.
        Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7: 3673-3683
        • Liu C.
        • Ren Y.
        • Li X.
        • Cao Y.
        • Chen Y.
        • Cui X.
        • et al.
        Absence of 19 known hotspot oncogenic mutations in soft tissue clear cell sarcoma: two cases report with review of the literature.
        Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2014; 7: 5242-5249
        • Luk P.P.
        • Yu B.
        • Ng C.C.
        • Mercorella B.
        • Selinger C.
        • Lum T.
        • et al.
        BRAF mutations in non-small cell lung cancer.
        Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2015; 4: 142-148
        • Mackay H.J.
        • Eisenhauer E.A.
        • Kamel-Reid S.
        • Tsao M.
        • Clarke B.
        • Karakasis K.
        • et al.
        Molecular determinants of outcome with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition in endometrial cancer.
        Cancer. 2013; 120: 603-610
        • Maeng C.H.
        • Lee J.
        • van Hummelen P.
        • Park S.H.
        • Palescandolo E.
        • Jang J.
        • et al.
        High-throughput genotyping in metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma identifies phosphoinositide-3-kinase and BRAF mutations.
        PLoS ONE. 2012; 7: e41655
        • Monsma D.J.
        • Monks N.R.
        • Cherba D.M.
        • Dylewski D.
        • Eugster E.
        • Jahn H.
        • et al.
        Genomic characterization of explant tumorgraft models derived from fresh patient tumor tissue.
        J Transl Med. 2012; 10: 125
        • Natrajan R.
        • Wilkerson P.M.
        • Marchio C.
        • Piscuoglio S.
        • Ng C.K.
        • Wai P.
        • et al.
        Characterization of the genomic features and expressed fusion genes in micropapillary carcinomas of the breast.
        J Pathol. 2013; 232: 553-565
        • Niu H.T.
        • Zhou Q.M.
        • Wang F.
        • Shao Q.
        • Guan Y.X.
        • Wen X.Z.
        • et al.
        Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase break points and oncogenic mutation profiles in acral/mucosal melanomas.
        Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2013; 26: 646-653
        • Oberholzer P.A.
        • Kee D.
        • Dziunycz P.
        • Sucker A.
        • Kamsukom N.
        • Jones R.
        • et al.
        RAS mutations are associated with the development of cutaneous squamous cell tumors in patients treated with RAF inhibitors.
        J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30: 316-321
        • Perkins G.
        • Yap T.A.
        • Pope L.
        • Cassidy A.M.
        • Dukes J.P.
        • Riisnaes R.
        • et al.
        Multi-purpose utility of circulating plasma DNA testing in patients with advanced cancers.
        PLoS ONE. 2012; 7: e47020
        • Pommier S.J.
        • Hernandez A.
        • Han E.
        • Massimino K.
        • Muller P.
        • Diggs B.
        • et al.
        Fresh surgical specimens yield breast stem/progenitor cells and reveal their oncogenic abnormalities.
        Ann Surg Oncol. 2012; 19: 527-535
        • Qin W.
        • Bajaj V.
        • Malinowska I.
        • Lu X.
        • MacConaill L.
        • Wu C.L.
        • et al.
        Angiomyolipoma have common mutations in TSC2 but no other common genetic events.
        PLoS ONE. 2011; 6: e24919
        • Ragazzon B.
        • Libe R.
        • Assie G.
        • Tissier F.
        • Barreau O.
        • Houdayer C.
        • et al.
        Mass-array screening of frequent mutations in cancers reveals RB1 alterations in aggressive adrenocortical carcinomas.
        Eur J Endocrinol. 2014; 170: 385-391
        • Rivera M.
        • Ricarte-Filho J.
        • Knauf J.
        • Shaha A.
        • Tuttle M.
        • Fagin J.A.
        • et al.
        Molecular genotyping of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant according to its histological subtypes (encapsulated vs infiltrative) reveals distinct BRAF and RAS mutation patterns.
        Mod Pathol. 2010; 23: 1191-1200
        • Russell P.A.
        • Barnett S.A.
        • Walkiewicz M.
        • Wainer Z.
        • Conron M.
        • Wright G.M.
        • et al.
        Correlation of mutation status and survival with predominant histologic subtype according to the new IASLC/ATS/ERS lung adenocarcinoma classification in stage III (N2) patients.
        J Thorac Oncol. 2013; 8: 461-468
        • Santarpia L.
        • Qi Y.
        • Stemke-Hale K.
        • Wang B.
        • Young E.J.
        • Booser D.J.
        • et al.
        Mutation profiling identifies numerous rare drug targets and distinct mutation patterns in different clinical subtypes of breast cancers.
        Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012; 134: 333-343
        • Smith C.G.
        • Fisher D.
        • Claes B.
        • Maughan T.S.
        • Idziaszczyk S.
        • Peuteman G.
        • et al.
        Somatic profiling of the epidermal growth factor receptor pathway in tumors from patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with chemotherapy ± cetuximab.
        Clin Cancer Res. 2013; 19: 4104-4113
        • Su K.Y.
        • Chen H.Y.
        • Li K.C.
        • Kuo M.L.
        • Yang J.C.
        • Chan W.K.
        • et al.
        Pretreatment epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) T790M mutation predicts shorter EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor response duration in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.
        J Clin Oncol. 2012; 30: 433-440
        • Tilch E.
        • Seidens T.
        • Cocciardi S.
        • Reid L.E.
        • Byrne D.
        • Simpson P.T.
        • et al.
        Mutations in EGFR, BRAF and RAS are rare in triple-negative and basal-like breast cancers from Caucasian women.
        Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2014; 143: 385-392
        • Tran B.
        • Brown A.M.
        • Bedard P.L.
        • Winquist E.
        • Goss G.D.
        • Hotte S.J.
        • et al.
        Feasibility of real time next generation sequencing of cancer genes linked to drug response: results from a clinical trial.
        Int J Cancer. 2012; 132: 1547-1555
        • Voss J.S.
        • Holtegaard L.M.
        • Kerr S.E.
        • Fritcher E.G.
        • Roberts L.R.
        • Gores G.J.
        • et al.
        Molecular profiling of cholangiocarcinoma shows potential for targeted therapy treatment decisions.
        Hum Pathol. 2013; 44: 1216-1222
        • Wen Y.S.
        • Cai L.
        • Zhang X.W.
        • Zhu J.F.
        • Zhang Z.C.
        • Shao J.Y.
        • et al.
        Concurrent oncogene mutation profile in Chinese patients with stage Ib lung adenocarcinoma.
        Medicine (Baltimore). 2014; 93: e296
        • Wetterskog D.
        • Wilkerson P.M.
        • Rodrigues D.N.
        • Lambros M.B.
        • Fritchie K.
        • Andersson M.K.
        • et al.
        Mutation profiling of adenoid cystic carcinomas from multiple anatomical sites identifies mutations in the RAS pathway, but no KIT mutations.
        Histopathology. 2013; 62: 543-550
        • Yanagawa N.
        • Leduc C.
        • Kohler D.
        • Saieg M.A.
        • John T.
        • Sykes J.
        • et al.
        Loss of phosphatase and tensin homolog protein expression is an independent poor prognostic marker in lung adenocarcinoma.
        J Thorac Oncol. 2012; 7: 1513-1521
        • Yip P.Y.
        • Yu B.
        • Cooper W.A.
        • Selinger C.I.
        • Ng C.C.
        • Kennedy C.W.
        • et al.
        Patterns of DNA mutations and ALK rearrangement in resected node negative lung adenocarcinoma.
        J Thorac Oncol. 2013; 8: 408-414
        • Zanaruddin S.N.
        • Yee P.S.
        • Hor S.Y.
        • Kong Y.H.
        • Ghani W.M.
        • Mustafa W.M.
        • et al.
        Common oncogenic mutations are infrequent in oral squamous cell carcinoma of Asian origin.
        PLoS ONE. 2013; 8: e80229
        • Dabir S.
        • Babakoohi S.
        • Kluge A.
        • Morrow J.J.
        • Kresak A.
        • Yang M.
        • et al.
        RET mutation and expression in small-cell lung cancer.
        J Thorac Oncol. 2014; 9: 1316-1323
        • Despierre E.
        • Yesilyurt B.T.
        • Lambrechts S.
        • Johnson N.
        • Verheijen R.
        • van der Burg M.
        • et al.
        Epithelial ovarian cancer: rationale for changing the one-fits-all standard treatment regimen to subtype-specific treatment.
        Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2014; 24: 468-477
        • Feldman D.R.
        • Iyer G.
        • Van Alstine L.
        • Patil S.
        • Al-Ahmadie H.
        • Reuter V.E.
        • et al.
        Presence of somatic mutations within PIK3CA, AKT, RAS, and FGFR3 but not BRAF in cisplatin-resistant germ cell tumors.
        Clin Cancer Res. 2014; 20: 3712-3720
        • Ferrandiz-Pulido C.
        • Hernandez-Losa J.
        • Masferrer E.
        • Vivancos A.
        • Somoza R.
        • Mares R.
        • et al.
        Identification of somatic gene mutations in penile squamous cell carcinoma.
        Genes Chromosom Cancer. 2015; 54: 629-637
        • Jiang N.
        • Liu N.
        • Yang F.
        • Zhou Q.
        • Cui R.
        • Jiang W.
        • et al.
        Hotspot mutations in common oncogenes are infrequent in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
        Oncol Rep. 2014; 32: 1661-1669
        • Lopez-Knowles E.
        • Segal C.V.
        • Gao Q.
        • Garcia-Murillas I.
        • Turner N.C.
        • Smith I.
        • et al.
        Relationship of PIK3CA mutation and pathway activity with antiproliferative response to aromatase inhibition.
        Breast Cancer Res. 2014; 16: R68
        • Luk P.P.
        • Selinger C.I.
        • Eviston T.J.
        • Lum T.
        • Yu B.
        • O’Toole S.A.
        • et al.
        Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma: an evaluation of its clinicopathological and genetic characteristics.
        Pathology. 2015; 47: 659-666
        • Matulonis U.A.
        • Hirsch M.
        • Palescandolo E.
        • Kim E.
        • Liu J.
        • van Hummelen P.
        • et al.
        High throughput interrogation of somatic mutations in high grade serous cancer of the ovary.
        PLoS ONE. 2011; 6: e24433
        • Okamoto I.
        • Sakai K.
        • Morita S.
        • Yoshioka H.
        • Kaneda H.
        • Takeda K.
        • et al.
        Multiplex genomic profiling of non-small cell lung cancers from the LETS phase III trial of first-line S-1/carboplatin versus paclitaxel/carboplatin: results of a West Japan Oncology Group study.
        Oncotarget. 2014; 5: 2293-2304
        • Schechter R.B.
        • Nagilla M.
        • Joseph L.
        • Reddy P.
        • Khattri A.
        • Watson S.
        • et al.
        Genetic profiling of advanced radioactive iodine-resistant differentiated thyroid cancer and correlation with axitinib efficacy.
        Cancer Lett. 2015; 359: 269-274
        • Stemke-Hale K.
        • Shipman K.
        • Kitsou-Mylona I.
        • de Castro D.G.
        • Hird V.
        • Brown R.
        • et al.
        Frequency of mutations and polymorphisms in borderline ovarian tumors of known cancer genes.
        Mod Pathol. 2013; 26: 544-552
        • Tan D.S.
        • Wang W.
        • Leong H.S.
        • Sew P.H.
        • Lau D.P.
        • Chong F.T.
        • et al.
        Tongue carcinoma infrequently harbor common actionable genetic alterations.
        BMC Cancer. 2014; 14: 679
        • Tan S.H.
        • Sapari N.S.
        • Miao H.
        • Hartman M.
        • Loh M.
        • Chng W.J.
        • et al.
        High-throughput mutation profiling changes before and 3 weeks after chemotherapy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.
        PLoS ONE. 2015; 10: e0142466
        • Wang S.
        • Yu B.
        • Ng C.C.
        • Mercorella B.
        • Selinger C.I.
        • O’Toole S.A.
        • et al.
        The suitability of small biopsy and cytology specimens for EGFR and other mutation testing in non-small cell lung cancer.
        Transl Lung Cancer Res. 2015; 4: 119-125
        • Wright A.A.
        • Howitt B.E.
        • Myers A.P.
        • Dahlberg S.E.
        • Palescandolo E.
        • Van Hummelen P.
        • et al.
        Oncogenic mutations in cervical cancer: genomic differences between adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix.
        Cancer. 2013; 119: 3776-3783
        • Ulivi P.
        • Delmonte A.
        • Chiadini E.
        • Calistri D.
        • Papi M.
        • Mariotti M.
        • et al.
        Gene mutation analysis in EGFR wild type NSCLC responsive to erlotinib: are there features to guide patient selection?.
        Int J Mol Sci. 2015; 16: 747-757
        • Zhang Z.C.
        • Fu S.
        • Wang F.
        • Wang H.Y.
        • Zeng Y.X.
        • Shao J.Y.
        Oncogene mutational profile in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
        Onco Targets Ther. 2014; 7: 457-467
        • Mosko M.J.
        • Nakorchevsky A.A.
        • Flores E.
        • Metzler H.
        • Ehrich M.
        • van den Boom D.J.
        • et al.
        Ultrasensitive detection of multiplexed somatic mutations Using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
        J Mol Diagn. 2016; 18: 23-31
        • Quinn A.M.
        • Hickson N.
        • Adaway M.
        • Priest L.
        • Jaeger E.
        • Udar N.
        • et al.
        Diagnostic mutation profiling and validation of non-small-cell lung cancer small biopsy samples using a high throughput platform.
        J Thorac Oncol. 2015; 10: 784-792
        • Li B.
        • Li L.
        • Li X.
        • Wang Y.
        • Xie Y.
        • Liu C.
        • et al.
        Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma with co-existence of KRAS/PIK3CA mutations.
        Int J Clin Exp Pathol. 2015; 8: 8563-8567
        • Weiss G.J.
        • Ganeshan B.
        • Miles K.A.
        • Campbell D.H.
        • Cheung P.Y.
        • Frank S.
        • et al.
        Noninvasive image texture analysis differentiates K-ras mutation from pan-wildtype NSCLC and is prognostic.
        PLoS ONE. 2014; 9: e100244
        • Portier B.P.
        • Kanagal-Shamanna R.
        • Luthra R.
        • Singh R.
        • Routbort M.J.
        • Handal B.
        • et al.
        Quantitative assessment of mutant allele burden in solid tumors by semiconductor-based next-generation sequencing.
        Am J Clin Pathol. 2014; 141: 559-572
        • Kim Y.M.
        • Lee S.W.
        • Chun S.M.
        • Kim D.Y.
        • Kim J.H.
        • Kim K.R.
        • et al.
        Analysis and comparison of somatic mutations in paired primary and recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer samples.
        PLoS ONE. 2014; 9: e99451
        • Spaans V.M.
        • Trietsch M.D.
        • Crobach S.
        • Stelloo E.
        • Kremer D.
        • Osse E.M.
        • et al.
        Designing a high-throughput somatic mutation profiling panel specifically for gynaecological cancers.
        PLoS ONE. 2014; 9: e93451
        • Azim Jr., H.A.
        • Brohee S.
        • Peccatori F.A.
        • Desmedt C.
        • Loi S.
        • Lambrechts D.
        • et al.
        Biology of breast cancer during pregnancy using genomic profiling.
        Endocr Relat Cancer. 2014; 21: 545-554
        • Barbour A.P.
        • Tang Y.H.
        • Armour N.
        • Dutton-Regester K.
        • Krause L.
        • Loffler K.A.
        • et al.
        BRAF mutation status is an independent prognostic factor for resected stage IIIB and IIIC melanoma: implications for melanoma staging and adjuvant therapy.
        Eur J Cancer. 2014; 50: 2668-2676
        • Bellmunt J.
        • Selvarajah S.
        • Rodig S.
        • Salido M.
        • de Muga S.
        • Costa I.
        • et al.
        Identification of ALK gene alterations in urothelial carcinoma.
        PLoS ONE. 2014; 9: e103325
        • Bellmunt J.
        • Werner L.
        • Leow J.J.
        • Mullane S.A.
        • Fay A.P.
        • Riester M.
        • et al.
        Somatic copy number abnormalities and mutations in PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway have prognostic significance for overall survival in platinum treated locally advanced or metastatic urothelial tumors.
        PLoS ONE. 2015; 10: e0124711
        • Daniels A.B.
        • Lee J.E.
        • MacConaill L.E.
        • Palescandolo E.
        • Van Hummelen P.
        • Adams S.M.
        • et al.
        High throughput mass spectrometry-based mutation profiling of primary uveal melanoma.
        Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012; 53: 6991-6996
        • Guancial E.A.
        • Werner L.
        • Bellmunt J.
        • Bamias A.
        • Choueiri T.K.
        • Ross R.
        • et al.
        FGFR3 expression in primary and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.
        Cancer Med. 2014; 3: 835-844
        • Ha S.Y.
        • Choi S.J.
        • Cho J.H.
        • Choi H.J.
        • Lee J.
        • Jung K.
        • et al.
        Lung cancer in never-smoker Asian females is driven by oncogenic mutations, most often involving EGFR.
        Oncotarget. 2015; 6: 5465-5474
        • Hanna M.C.
        • Go C.
        • Roden C.
        • Jones R.T.
        • Pochanard P.
        • Javed A.Y.
        • et al.
        Colorectal cancers from distinct ancestral populations show variations in BRAF mutation frequency.
        PLoS ONE. 2013; 8: e74950
        • Ramkissoon S.H.
        • Bi W.L.
        • Schumacher S.E.
        • Ramkissoon L.A.
        • Haidar S.
        • Knoff D.
        • et al.
        Clinical implementation of integrated whole-genome copy number and mutation profiling for glioblastoma.
        Neuro Oncol. 2015; 17: 1344-1355
        • Seol H.S.
        • Kang H.J.
        • Lee S.I.
        • Kim N.E.
        • Kim T.I.
        • Chun S.M.
        • et al.
        Development and characterization of a colon PDX model that reproduces drug responsiveness and the mutation profiles of its original tumor.
        Cancer Lett. 2014; 345: 56-64
        • Seol H.S.
        • Suh Y.A.
        • Ryu Y.J.
        • Kim H.J.
        • Chun S.M.
        • Na D.C.
        • et al.
        A patient-derived xenograft mouse model generated from primary cultured cells recapitulates patient tumors phenotypically and genetically.
        J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013; 139: 1471-1480
        • Lyle M.
        • Haydu L.E.
        • Menzies A.M.
        • Thompson J.F.
        • Saw R.P.
        • Spillane A.J.
        • et al.
        The molecular profile of metastatic melanoma in Australia.
        Pathology. 2016; 48: 188-193
        • Pitt S.C.
        • Hernandez R.A.
        • Nehs M.A.
        • Gawande A.A.
        • Moore Jr., F.D.
        • Ruan D.T.
        • et al.
        Identification of novel oncogenic mutations in thyroid cancer.
        J Am Coll Surg. 2016;